What Is an A&R in the Music Business?

July 17, 2021 in A&R

Here is what it means to be an A&R in the Music Business

An A&R is either an individual or a group of individuals that scout and develop talent for a record label. With technological advances and the explosive growth of social media, A&R is redefining itself. This music-industry profession is becoming much more complex, with the use of big data and mining software. Gone are the days of merely finding talent busking on the street or performing at local concerts. 

The Traditional Role of an A&R

Those not familiar with the music industry likely haven’t heard of the term ‘A&R.’ And even industry veterans misinterpret the true rule of A&R professionals. ‘A&R’ stands for artist and repertoire – a role within a record label or music publishing company that seeks out new talent.

An A&R for a record company might scan the web to search for the hottest new talent. In recent years, YouTube has been a hotspot for discovering the next big stars. Pop singers Justin Bieber, Shawn Mendes, and Alessia Cara were all discovered on the video-sharing website.

A&R Before the Digital Revolution

Now, let’s take a step back to the 80s and 90s. There was no YouTube, Instagram, or Tik Tok. How did A&Rs find the talent that sang some of the most recognized beats of the 20th century? Back in the day, it was really about “who you knew” or sheer luck with a bit of hard work.

The legendary Prince is a prime example of what it took to get discovered in the pre-internet world. Growing up in Minneapolis, Prince was thousands of miles away from the music hubs of Los Angeles and New York. As a teenager, Prince joined a family band called 94 East. Little did he know, he was on the path to stardom.

Soon after joining the band, Prince went on to meet a local producer named Chris Moon. Prince recorded his first demo tape with Moon – the man who would then pitch the young singer to businessman Owen Husney. After hearing Prince, the Minneapolis businessman was so impressed that he signed Prince onto a management contract, allowing Prince the opportunity to record another demo.

After recording the second demo with the help of Husney, Prince captured the attention of some of the nation’s biggest record companies – A&M Records, Columbia Records, and Warner Brothers. Prince eventually signed on with Warner Brothers and became one of the most endowed signers of the 80s.

The Discovery of Prince: An A&R Practice Lost in the Past?

The story of Prince illustrates the old-age practice of A&R. You needed personal connections or to be in the right place at the right time to land a record deal. Does that still hold today? In some cases, yes. Taylor Swift, for example, was discovered by a Big Machine Records executive after giving an impressive performance at The Bluebird Café in Nashville. However, the A&R role has drastically evolved since the discovery of Prince and even Taylor Swift, becoming much more digital. 

What Does it Take to Become an A&R?

Unlike becoming an audio engineer or marketing rep for a record label, there’s no clear path to entry for those who want a role in A&R. It could take years of verifiable industry experience. Oftentimes years of low-paying gig and contract work until you land that seemingly perfect ‘A&R Coordinator’ role with a record label.

But if an industry novice were to embark on the goal of securing an A&R role, what steps should he or she take?

A college degree isn’t a must-have, but it will give you a one-up if you have a bachelor’s degree in music business, music technology, or even audio engineering. Once you’re ready to start working your way up to an A&R role, you have to start small.

Small Strides

One overlooked path is to start with a booking role at nightclubs and music festivals. This not only gives you exposure to the industry but also helps you develop connections. 

If the club or festival revolves around a certain genre, such as EDM or country, there’s a way to tell if you have a good ear: the success of the venue. When shows sell out and guests routinely come back to the venue, it shows that you know what the listeners want to hear. You know how to cater to your target market.

Will this pay the bills? Probably not. Most of these jobs are part-time or seasonal, but they’re a great way to gain experience and connections within the industry.

Connections with Local Talent

By visiting venues where local artists perform, you can ‘play pretend’ so to speak. Pretend that you’re an A&R coordinator and short-list the talented bands in your local market. You can even go as far as creating a small local label.

Once you’ve identified the best local talent, scout them and help them succeed. Offer to find gigs for them, collaborate with other artists, and even help them record demos. 

If one of your artists records a hit and gets recognized by leading record labels, you will (hopefully) get credit as being the A&R. If the artist signs with a larger record label, the label may try to bring you onboard. However, don’t get your hopes up. It might take a few ‘hit’ artists before you get your break.

An Entry-Level Role at a Record Label

Even entry-level roles at record labels are competitive, especially if you’re applying for roles at Universal Music Group, Sony Music, and Warner Music Group. You may have an easier time getting a foot in the door at a smaller label.

From working in the mailroom to doing data entry, any role at a record label could help you ultimately get an A&R role. No matter the role, do your best to excel and create connections. If you looked at the resumes of A&R managers, you would see that many of them started in entry-level, low-paying roles and worked their way up.

Many A&R professionals had to make big commitments to get to where they are today. Often uprooting their families and moving to where the industry is: Los Angeles, New York City, and Nashville. 

Competing for the Roles at Record Labels

The competition for an A&R role is fierce, both at small and large record labels. It isn’t uncommon for one position to receive hundreds of applications across multiple job search platforms.

To illustrate how competitive the industry is, take a look at a Music A&R Talent Management Intern role posted on LinkedIn. Keep in mind, this is a position at a small talent management agency based out of Los Angeles.


There were over 200 applicants, and that’s just on LinkedIn alone. If Sonar Projects posted this internship job advertisement on various sites, they could likely have received over 1,000 applicants or more.

It’s quite obvious now that landing that A&R role is not a walk in the park. But how many A&R roles are available at a given time? A quick search on Indeed for ‘A&R Coordinator’ returns only 68 positions:


The biggest Competition Comes from Those on the Inside

Of the 68 companies with A&R coordinator roles, there may only be a small handful that does not already have internal applicants. Remember, the music industry is all about who you know. The industry is smaller than you think and many hiring managers offer roles to connections within their network. 

As mentioned, those internal candidates could have been the ones who started in the mailroom or filing paperwork for the label’s accountants. Unless an external candidate has an extensive track record and an impressive resume, the chances of getting hired for an A&R coordinator role right off the street are slim.

Contract, Temporary, and Part-Time Work

To add the cherry on top, many A&R roles are either temporary, part-time, or on contract. This often means no benefits – no health insurance, vacation time, or 401(k). 

Why Do Record Labels Avoid Hiring A&R Professionals into Full-Time Roles?

It’s more common to see full-time roles for large labels, but smaller labels simply might not have the funds or the need to hire a full-time A&R professional.

Furthermore, some labels still view A&R as a short-term endeavor to find new talent. Once the label has met its current talent capacity, it no longer needs or wants to pay an A&R professional. The label may also use a consultant to train its in-house employees on how to identify and attract talent. 

Many labels do not view A&R as a long-term, continuous need. Rather, they view it as a fragment of business: find and sign talent, record music, reap the earnings, grow business, and repeat. Labels, especially smaller ones, tend to only use an A&R during the ‘find and sign talent’ stage.

The Evolution of the A&R Role 

It should be no surprise that the role of A&R has evolved immensely since the era of Prince. Finding hidden gems performing on the streets or at small cafes is still in practice, but not the norm. Instead, record labels are using social media and even data analytics to find talent and gauge the popularity of music. 

Below are the responsibilities for a job posting for a Sr. Director A&R, Pop/Alternative at Warner Music Group (one of the biggest record labels in the United States). 

In a director A&R role, the individual wears many hats. The director oversees the process of signing new artists and coordinates with lawyers and other A&R representatives. As the job description states, the director would attend concerts and clubs (so again, this is still a way of identifying new talent).

Even though the job listing does not explicitly say “use social media to identify new artists,” it does mention using the internet to find writers and artists for company acquisition. You can be certain that this means using YouTube, Tik Tok, Instagram, Facebook, and other social media platforms to find undiscovered talent. 

A&R and Data Analytics: An Emerging Trend

The use of data analytics is booming in the industry. Most record labels have music insight analysts (or a role with similar verbiage) that work in conjunction with A&R. These roles are more technical but could be a role that an A&R professional transitions into or vice versa. 

Below is an example of an Analyst, Music Insight & Analytics at Sony Music Entertainment in New York City:


At first glance, you would not expect the average A&R to have the skills needed for an analyst role (SQL proficiency, front-end web development, and a technical background in an area such as data mining and engineering).

Indeed, most A&Rs do not have these technical skills, at least traditionally. The typical A&R position is more of a ‘front-end’ role. Direct communication with talent, closing deals, attending shows and festivals to find the next big stars. They have the strong music industry knowledge and are well-versed in the talent acquisition process.

On the other hand, an analyst is a ‘back-end’ or ‘back-office role. The analyst assists the A&R by using data analytics techniques and computer software to help aid artist discovery. Analysts don’t necessarily need to be well-versed in the music industry, but it could certainly help them secure a role at a major record label.

Common Misconceptions of the A&R Profession in the Music Industry

A common misconception is that A&Rs simply find new talent – no more and no less. As you can see in the job advertisement at Warner Music Group, an A&R does much more. A&Rs act as the liaison between the attorneys, analysts, artists, and other A&R representatives.

Another misconception, especially for those new to the industry, is that you can walk into an A&R role. That’s certainly not the case, especially at large record labels. Securing an A&R role can take decades of experience and you often need a well-established network of connections in the music industry. 

Why A&R Matters

Without a competent A&R department, record labels lose out on great talent. The A&R is the individual that makes the first impression, and the impression that could impact whether an artist signs on with a label. 

The increasing scope of A&R now means that A&R professionals have a stronger impact on the profitability of the record label. Working in tandem with analysts, A&Rs must identify the likability of music (both music produced by the label and music that the label seeks to acquire). Both roles also help develop promotion strategies that impact that label’s bottom line. 

What’s in Store for the Future?

The role of an A&R has already changed drastically from the days of the 80s and 90s. With the emergence and explosion of social media, record labels have had to shapeshift their talent acquisition techniques. 

Record labels also have much powerful technology at their hands – most of which uses data mining and big data. This new technology has helped birth the analyst role, a role that works closely with A&Rs. 

There’s a strong possibility that the A&R and analyst role will fuse, especially at smaller firms that can’t afford to hire both. This means that A&R professionals used to scouting talent at concerts and clubs will have to gain new technical skills, including Python, SQL, Java, and HTML coding. If A&R professionals do indeed obtain technical skills, then traditional analysts will need to gain a deeper understanding of the music industry. 

The need for A&R will not go away, but it will continue to evolve. Innovative technology and new social media platforms will continue to change the way that record labels find talent. 

If you have any questions feel free to email me at brendan@brendankennedy.co. You can also view my work here.

Hurricanes – Rick Ross Book Notes

July 13, 2021 in Uncategorized

Quotes: “You are going to fuck things up so bad and everybody and their momma are going to tell you to quit. Success comes from saying “Fuck it. I ain’t through just yet” and then giving it another go. Resiliency is what breeds success.” – page 232

  • Chapter 9 [[Slip N Slide Records]] – Ross signed to Slip-N-Slide records and was really going nowhere. Met [[Kanye West]] right before College Dropout and he ended up giving a beat to [[TI]] [[Doin My Job]]
  • [[Rick Ross]] went through a lot of beef with [[DJ Khaled]] and other DJS early on when he was trying to get on. Would dis them all to get attention and use it.
  • [[Hustlin’]] rollout strategy
    • Rick Ross posters on every corner of the street
    • hot air balloons
    • water bottles
    • cardboard cutouts
    • NBA all star weekend – white semi trucks with Ross on it
  • Chapter 14-16 Summary – Never took more than two weeks off and kept it moving album after album. [[God Forgives, I Don’t]] was the best-selling album of his career when it came out and did over 200,000 units the first week. [[Dr. Dre]] and [[Jay Z]] were featured on the project. Was also nominated for a Grammy.
    • [[DJ Khaled]] was a close friend and was always there for him especially when Ross would go through seizures.
    • Commanded more money from [[Def Jam]] and was pissed that he wasn’t a top priority. Ended up dropping [[Rich Forever]] as a mixtape and ended up touring [[Europe]] on his own getting the bag by himself
    • At this time [[Meek Mill]] and [[Wale]] were also starting to see success.
  • Despite his success, he was dealing with a lot of [[Health]] problems. It’s important to take care of yourself.
  • Chapters 16-19 – things were shaping up and had a lot of great success.
    • After his 36th birthday party Rick Ross was driving home and ended up getting shot at multiple times. There was a lot of territory and gang disputes from mentioning [[Larry Hoover]] in his record. A lot of people seemed to target him.
    • Despite everything his mom and sister were the backbone of his empire and really helped him manage his finances. He then saw the [[Holyfield House]] in Georgia and knew he had to have it. Granted it’s a huge cost with about 1 million in annual upkeep, but with persistence, he was able to acquire and own it.
    • Started getting into heavier investments with [[Wingstop]], [[Checkers]], and [[Luc Belaire]].
      • [[Luc Belaire]] and [[Sovereign Brands]] presented him with an ownership stake in exchange for promotion.
      • [[Cristal]] champagne was one of the first brands in hip-hop that made the brand millions of dollars but [[Jay Z]] felt the disrespect and pulled it down off all of his [[40/40 Club]].
    • [[Hood Billionaire]] felt rushed and due to [[Meek Mill]] going to prison [[Rick Ross]] felt rushed to put out a project. Especially after the release of [[Mastermind]] it wasn’t received well.
  • Tags: #hiphop #RickRoss #music

How Rockstar By DaBaby feat. Roddy Ricch Became Number 1 On The Spotify Top 200

July 13, 2021 in Uncategorized

After being released in July Rockstar by DaBaby is now number 1 on the Spotify Top 200 Global Chart and that is no thanks to creative Tik Tok marketing.

The video that started it all and came out on 4.17. Now what is interesting is this was released as an Original Sound and has now surpassed 1.3 Million video views created.

Now what is interesting is that the song came out on April 17th, but it took time for it to grow on the Tik Tok platform. Then right around May 5th there is a consistent pattern in the charts where there was a dip in placement and then a huge growth spurt. What caused the spike?

Charli D’Amelio and Addison Rae all posted the song at the same time within that week causing a large spike in Tik Tok UGC videos being created. Now the Hype House does not always guarantee consumption, but in this case it was the viral moment that the song needed to trigger it on the platform.

The Power Of A Netflix Sync In Real Time

July 13, 2021 in Uncategorized

Moral Of The Story by Ashe followed a similar path to Truth Hurts by Lizzo. Creative marketing combined with a Netflix sync is a great way to break a record in 2020 and beyond.

Now the strategy for getting syncs is complicated, but the best way is to build relationships with music supervisors at Netflix, directors, etc.

Leave a comment if you would like to see more insights like this. Feel free to shoot me an email as well – brendan@brendankennedy.co